Październik 2013

Where vessels are born

As General Manager of the marketing and sales department at Hyundai Heavy Industries (HHI), B.K. Chung has seen many a vessel come off the production line. In Ulsan, Korea the company’s giant shipyard puts out more than one hundred large ships per year (tankers, container ships, etc.) and accounts for 15 percent of the world’s shipbuilding capacity. However of all the vessels that the company produces, one is unique. It is a vessel that will never take to the sea, one that will remain anchored for some thirty years amid the hills of Haute-Provence: the ITER vacuum vessel. Within the scope of its in-kind procurement to the ITER Project, it is Korea’s responsibility to produce and deliver two of the nine sectors (#1 and #6) and 35 of the sets of ports that form the ITER vacuum vessel. (Korea will also manufacture toroidal field coil structures on behalf of ITER Japan.) Following the contract signature in 2010 and the production of real-size mockups in 2011, HHI launched the fabrication of the actual components in October 2012. It plans to have all four segments (upper, inboard, equatorial and lower) of the two vacuum vessel sectors complete by 2016, then welded and ready for shipping to the ITER site in 2017. Although the company has acquired considerable experience in cutting, forming, machining, welding and drilling steel structures—and although it is not new to fusion, having manufactured the core components of the KSTAR Tokamak in the early 2000s—the production of sectors for the ITER vacuum vessel presents some unique challenges. „It is a real challenge for us to overcome the difficulties of welding, non-destructive examination and tolerances due to the very unique shapes of the components,” explains Byung-Ryul Roh the general manager of the Nuclear Po Czytaj dalej...

Attending to the needs of newly arrived expats

For almost ten years she helped expatriates from France to settle in China. Now she will help the integration of ITER expats in France. After finishing high school Zhen Chen, newly appointed Staff Welfare & Assistance Officer in the Human Resources Division, studied French in Bejing for four years and then worked at the renowned Alliance Française for two. To put her language skills to practice and get a taste of France and its cultural subtleties she then spent a year in Paris.  And France has remained a leitmotif in Zhen’s life ever since. Back in Bejing she was asked to be part of the team that started up the Chinese subsidiary of Dalkia, a French company specialized in energy services. In 10 years Dalkia China, initially a small-scale company with just a couple of employees, grew into a full-scale operation of 1,700 people. Zhen played a key role in managing the human resources aspects of this rapid growth and the quick and efficient integration of many French expats in their new life and work. Her experience in dealing with the challenges and needs of newly arrived expats will be very helpful at the ITER Organization, which is constantly managing new staff arriving from its Member states. In her newly created position within the Human Resources Division, one of her main responsibilities will be to set up a Staff Welfare Program, which will provide services to staff to help them improve their work-life balance. She will also work on a program to help newly arrived staff to quickly settle in and understand the ITER Project and its organization.  Another important part of her job will be to manage the contacts between the ITER parents and the international school. In her new role, Zhen will work in collaboration and consultation with Agence Iter FranceR Czytaj dalej...

Diagnostics experts converge at Headquarters

The International Tokamak Physics Activity (ITPA) Topical Group on Diagnostics (Diagnostic TG) held its 25th meeting at the ITER site from 15-18 October. The group has a wide remit, starting from advising the ITER Organization on diagnostic requirements, passing through proposing, planning and reporting on joint experiments on diagnostic techniques and analysis, and culminating with supporting ITER operation and advancing diagnostics for DEMO and future reactors. At the meeting, chaired by Yasunori Kawano, extensive progress was reported on mirror cleaning techniques for optical measurements. This type of technology will be deployed for the first time in ITER, where the extended plasma burn times (4700 hours) combined with the high energy bombardment of the first-wall components can lead to rough mixed-metal build-up on the mirrors. Progress was also made in understanding and reducing the impact of wall reflections. For all-metal wall machines such as ITER, these can distort or even mask the signals from optical diagnostics. A discussion on escaping alpha particles produced in the fusion burn resulted in the launching a new activity for further investigation, including a proposed new method. Measurements and techniques for dust, tritium and erosion were discussed in a special session. These measurements are needed so ITER can plan its operation and maintenance well within regulatory limits and to gain understanding on the way to DEMO. A new joint experiment for the systematic comparison of Charge Exchange Recombination Spectroscopy and X-ray Imaging Crystal Spectroscopy was presented. These diagnostics measure ion temperature and plasma rotation—both parameters necessary to steering the machine. The group also discussed progress with neutron calibration during a special two-day ITER Organization worksho Czytaj dalej...

Record building contract awarded by Europe

The European Domestic Agency for ITER, Fusion for Energy, has concluded a EUR 530 million contract for Tokamak Complex building services with a Franco-German consortium comprising Cofely Axima, Cofely Ineo and Cofely Endel (part of the GDF Suez Group) and the M +W Group GmbH. This is the largest contract ever awarded for the ITER Project by Europe, which is responsible for the construction of 39 scientific buildings and dedicated areas on the ITER platform. The building services contract covers the design, supply, installation and commissioning of the mechanical and electrical equipment for the Tokamak Complex plus the surrounding buildings—a total volume of 97,200 m3. Scope will include an HVAC system (Heating Ventilation Air Conditioning) powerful enough to treat 1,000,000 m³ of airflow/hour, Instrumentation & Control (I&C) systems, power supplies, interior and exterior lighting, gas and liquid networks, state-of-the-art fire detection and extinguishing systems (2,000 fire detectors), pipe fittings, and handling equipment with various interfaces to buildings and systems. The contract signature follows on the heels of the main Tokamak Complex construction contract signed last December and which was kicked off this year. Under this latest contract, the works necessary for the installation of ITER’s high-tech Assembly Phase equipment will get underway. Read the full story on the Fusion for Energy website. Czytaj dalej...

Paving the way for tritium breeding

Last week, the committee in charge of the governance of the Test Blanket Module Program (TBM Program) convened at ITER Headquarters for its tenth meeting. The TBM Program Committee meets twice a year to review the implementation in ITER of these in-vessel components and their associated ancillary systems charged with testing viable techniques for the "breeding" of tritium necessary for the fuelling of future fusion power reactors. The Committee’s findings are reported to the ITER Council. The main objectives of the meeting were to verify the status of the short-term steps planned in the present ITER Baseline and to identify the actions needed to achieve them on time. The most important milestones identified were the signature of the six TBM Arrangements and the organization of Conceptual Design Reviews for the six different Test Blanket Systems, which are scheduled for the second half of 2014, or early 2015. An important agenda item was to reach agreement on the details of the early procurement of the connection pipes for the Test Blanket System. These connection pipes belong to the six Test Blanket Systems and should therefore be procured by the relevant ITER Members. A document dealing with the administrative and financial arrangements for the procurement of those pipes has now been agreed upon and will be recommended to the ITER Council for endorsement. The tenth TBM Program Committee noted the good progress in the design development performed by the ITER Organization and in the R&D activities carried out by all seven ITER Members. The main milestones in relation to the activities planned for 2014 and 2015 were verified and confirmed by the group. A further item discussed was the preparation of the Radwaste Management Agreement necessary to the definition of how radwaste related to the Test Czytaj dalej...

For the assembly cranes, integration is key

If one excludes such monsters as the Taisun crane at the Yantai Raffles Shipyard, in Yantai China, capable of lifting 20,000 tons, the ITER assembly crane, with a lifting capacity of 1,500 tons, can be counted among the strongest in the world. The ITER assembly crane—actually two 750-ton cranes working in tandem—will provide synchronized lift and millimetre-scale positioning for the ITER Tokamak components. The system will be complemented by two smaller 50-ton auxiliary cranes. In July, the European Domestic Agency Fusion for Energy awarded the contract for the design, certification, manufacturing, testing, installation and commissioning of the four cranes to a German-French consortium, NKMNOELL-REEL, formed by NKMNoell Special Cranes GmbH, Germany and REEL S.A.S., France. The contract, worth approximately EUR 31 million, also includes the 120-ton capacity Tokamak cargo lift that will move activated components from the Tokamak to the Hot Cell facility during the Operation Phase. The Final Design Review for the assembly cranes, which started off at ITER on Monday 30 September with the presentation of the design, generated only minor comments. However the review, chaired by ITER’s Central Engineering and Plant Directorate head Sergio Orlandi, strongly stressed the necessity of integrating the cranes in respect to the wider context—a „double” integration taking decommissioning requirements into consideration in the crane system design, and integrating the crane system into the structures of both the Assembly Building and the Tokamak Complex Building (two constructions that differ in almost all aspects). „Decommissioning the installation once the ITER scientific program is completed some thirty years from now is the responsibility of France,” explains Sergio. „ Czytaj dalej...

ITER advisory board gives green light for technical changes

During its 15th meeting, the ITER Council Science and Technology Advisory Committee (STAC) paved the way last week for two important technical decisions that will have positive impact on the performance of the ITER machine and on its scientific schedule. Pending the adoption of the STAC proposal by the ITER Council next month, the ITER divertor will be equipped with tungsten (W) targets right from the start of operations, and two in-vessel coil systems (the ELM control and the vertical stability coils), will be in the ITER Baseline. „This STAC meeting was a very significant one,” David Campbell, director of the Plasma Operations Directorate, told the staff assembled in the ITER amphitheatre on Thursday, only one hour after the meeting had concluded. „Two important technical decisions were made. These positive recommendations came after many years of hard work at the ITER Organization and in the Domestic Agencies, supported by a wide range of scientists and engineers in the Members’ communities. I think that we should feel very pleased that we were able to bring these technologies to a level of maturity to convince the STAC.” The decision to go ahead with the full tungsten divertor is based on the successful testing of tungsten prototype modules at the high heatflux ITER Divertor Test Facility in St. Petersburg, Russia, and on the encouraging experimental results of a controlled shallow melting of the W divertor recently experienced on JET. „Based upon the detailed assessments reported in the two preceding meetings, the STAC believes that the technology and physics bases of the carbon and tungsten divertor options have reached the level where it is possible to decide on the Baseline strategy of the first ITER divertor,& Czytaj dalej...

EU awards engineering contract for poloidal field coils

The first of a number of work packages for the manufacturing of ITER’s poloidal field coils has been signed by the European Domestic Agency, Fusion for Energy (F4E). The Engineering Integrator contract was awarded to ASG Superconductors (Italy) in August 2013. As Engineering Integrator, ASG will be responsible for issuing a manufacturing plan for ITER’s poloidal field coils that defines the manufacturing layout and workflow, including manufacturing drawings and procedures for the production of all the poloidal field coils to be produced in the on-site Poloidal Field Coils Winding Facility. The manufacturing plan, developed in compliance of rigorous Quality Assurance, will establish the control of manufacturing activities and the production schedule. ASG will also support F4E in the procurement of the tooling and equipment for component manufacture and supervise the manufacturing and cold test activities. A team of approximately 20 engineers will work under the contract, worth approximately EUR 27.5 million. Europe is responsible for the fabrication and testing of ITER poloidal field coils 2-6 (poloidal field coil 1 will be supplied by Russia). Coils 2-5 will be manufactured and tested in Europe, while poloidal field coil 6 will be manufactured in China and cold tested in Europe. Cold testing will involve cooling the coils to low temperatures (80 K) in order to reproduce the thermal stresses that will be experienced during ITER operation. In addition to the Engineering Integrator contract, work packages are under preparation by F4E to cover the tooling, site and infrastructure, manufacturing and cold testing of the poloidal field coils. Focus will now be on implementing the Engineering Contract and negotiating the next procurement, which is for the tooling necessary for winding operations. Read mor Czytaj dalej...

Standing easy

In a small warehouse in Peyrolles, about 10 km south of the ITER construction site, a key access structure for ITER in-vessel assembly is currently undergoing trials. It’s a 30° degree prototype of ITER’s in-vessel staging: a structure made of aluminium grating, that will enable the assembly workforce to install components and tooling on the inside of ITER’s vacuum chamber. While Michelangelo had to rely on a shaky wooden structure to paint the frescoes on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, the people in charge of mounting ITER’s in-vessel components to walls of the steel structure will have something more robust. Four levels of staging will be installed during the assembly process to provide access to all interior surfaces. The staging has been designed to allow safe, fast and easy access to four levels inside the vacuum vessel. Its modular design will be adaptable to the different tasks that will take place in parallel in the vessel. The staging will be used mainly for man access, but the structures have been designed to be strong enough to also support machinery and equipment such as weld sets and manual hoists. The staging can accommodate 70 workers at the same time during assembly. However, the number of persons at the same time in the vessel will be determined by the safety officers. On the 7th of October, at the CSTI workshop in Peyrolles, where the prototype was manufactured, a small delegation from the ITER assembly team visited the company to test the installation of the staging and accept the prototype. Step by step, the delegation witnessed a 10° section extended to form the 30° prototype. Staging support beams were lifted by custom designed handling tools and positioned on adapters that—in situation—will be attached to the vacuum vessel wall via blanket support housin Czytaj dalej...

A "true engagement" to bring about a sustainable future

Shortly after World War I, Daniel Dunlop, a visionary working in the British electricity industry, decided to bring together leading energy experts for a World Power Conference to discuss the energy issues of the day. Held in London in 1924, the First World Power Conference attracted 1,700 delegates from 40 countries. The meeting was so successful that those attending decided to establish a permanent organization to pursue the dialogue on a regular basis. From those auspicious beginnings can be traced the origin of the 22nd World Energy Congress (WEC), which gathered more than 6,000 delegates last week in Daegu, South Korea. In a little under 90 years the „energy issues of the day” have changed drastically. During the early years, the World Power Conference (the name was changed to World Energy Congress in 1968) was all about assessing the „power resources” of the world and presenting the „inventions” that would help to exploit them. In the last quarter of the twentieth century as the WEC focused on the fluctuations of the oil market, new players entered the field (nuclear), new preoccupations surfaced (the environment) and energy—due to economic, political and technological concerns—became a societal issue. The 22nd edition of WEC aimed to focus attention on another drastic change in the global politics of energy. What is at stake today is the very future of our planet. „Energy security is one of the biggest issues that humankind faces,” insisted Korean Prime Minister Jung Hong-won in his opening address. „Depletion of natural resources, environmental pollution, and climate change pose an actual threat to people’s lives.” As WEC delegates debated the options for "Securing Tomorrow’s Energy Today," fusion was, for the fi Czytaj dalej...

Down to the detail

The current schedule for the assembly of the ITER Tokamak contains 27,000 lines. And that schedule will expand further as the assembly planners at the ITER Organization work with engineers to structure the activities around construction work packages and further define the steps of the procedures. Beginning in late 2014, each day in the Assembly & Operations Division will begin with a coordination meeting where the previous day’s progress in assembly and installation is reviewed and the work plan for the day ahead adjusted. Participating in these meetings will be the assembly planners and managers, ITER and Domestic Agency system responsible officers, assembly staff, the Site Manager (responsible for the overall organization and safety coordination of site works) and, over time, the construction managers for each of the six independent worksites. But we’re not there yet. First, the 27,000 Tokamak assembly activities have to be reviewed line by line—a task of epic proportions—to make sure that each activity is consistent with the latest designs on the one hand and the overall schedule on the other.  This task falls to ITER’s assembly planners, a small team of experts from the construction industry working with Steve Gilligan (Assembly & Operations Planning responsible officer) and Debbie Cox (planning lead within the Machine Assembly & Installation Section, led by Bob Shaw). „We are currently progressing with defining and planning the hundreds of construction work packages that will make up the complex assembly of the ITER Tokamak,” says Steve. „Each one must be reviewed for consistency with the assembly sequence that is being developed through detailed engineering studies before it can be included in the specifications of assembly contracts and finall Czytaj dalej...

WEC: tackling the "energy trilemma"

For ninety years since the establishment of the World Energy Congress (WEC), global energy issues have revolved around national politics, technology, the economy and—over the past four decades—the price of the oil barrel. Today, as can be felt here in Daegu, Korea, where the 22nd edition of WEC opened this Sunday, there’s an added urgency to the matter: discussing energy in 2013 is discussing the future of our planet. „Energy is a daunting challenge that must be addressed by the international community,” said Korean Prime Minister Jung Hong-won as he spoke to some of the 6,000 delegates from 140 countries who have assembled here until Thursday. „It is vital that we form a coherent, long-term framework within which to plan and implement future investments,” added WEC Chairman Pierre Gadonneix, the former CEO of the French utility company Electricité de France. Never before has energy been so high on the agenda of world leaders. Every nation and the world as a whole must face what WEC has identified as the „energy trilemma” of the decades ahead—energy security, energy accessibility and environmental sustainability. While WEC is about self-promotion, where the largest companies, state-owned power operators, ministries and regulatory agencies compete for the largest and most spectacular exhibition stand, it is also about inventing a vision and drawing scenarios for the future. Gadonneix said he expected „true engagement” from the many policy makers present here in Daegu. Now, can tomorrow’s scenarios include fusion as a significant contributor to the energy mix and as an answer to the energy trilemma? Early Monday 14 October, during a session entitled „Fusion: Betting on a different future?” participants ITER Director-General Os Czytaj dalej...

Ready to launch the prototype: HTS current leads

High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) current leads are the components that transmit the large currents from room-temperature power supplies to very low-temperature superconducting coils. HTS current leads use a short segment of high temperature superconductor that can sustain much higher current densities than even good conductors such as copper, allowing the reduction of the material cross-section and the related heat conduction by about tenfold. Power and installation cost savings with HTS current leads are estimated at approximately 20 percent of the total heat extraction capacity of the ITER cryoplant. The current leads for the ITER Tokamak have come a long way: from the original 60 kA proposals from the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and European partners (KIT’s "demonstrator"), to the first prototypes fabricated and tested in China at the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Plasma Physics (ASIPP), and now on to the presentation of the HTS current lead mockups at the 12th HTS working group meeting that took place in ASIPP (Hefei, China) held last week from 10-11 October. The HTS working group, which brings together experts from institutes in Japan (NIFS), Europe (CERN), China (ASIPP) and the ITER Organization, has been supporting the development of the HTS current leads for ITER since 2008. Yuntao Song, the project manager for the ITER feeders at ASIPP, gave the 12th working group a warm welcome, stressing that „the HTS current lead team in ASIPP has spared no effort and no expense to deliver the HTS mockups on time.” The current lead mockups presented this week were fully endorsed by the working group, thereby giving ASIPP and China the ITER Organization stamp of approval for the manufacturing process and technology for the 60 large-scale HTS current lea Czytaj dalej...

Manufacturing can begin on acceleration grid power supplies

Part of the Neutral Beam Test Facility, the SPIDER test bed is designed to finalize the development of the ion sources required for the ITER neutral beam injectors and to test all essential aspects of the diagnostic neutral beam accelerator. Together with MITICA, a full-scale test of ITER’s heating neutral beam injector, SPIDER will help resolve challenging physics and technology issues and validate concepts before the neutral beam system is built at ITER. Europe, Japan and India are contributing components to the Neutral Beam Test Facility, which is under construction in Padova, Italy. On 29-30 August, the Indian Domestic Agency (ITER India) hosted the final design review for the acceleration grid power supplies for SPIDER and also the diagnostic neutral beam. The acceleration grid power supplies for both systems are similar with respect to their technical specifications (system rated for 96 kVDC, 75 A) and intricacies. However, one will be installed at the Neutral Beam Test Facility (SPIDER), while the other will be installed directly at ITER to power the diagnostic neutral beam. Under separate Procurement Arrangements, India is responsible for the design, procurement, supply, installation and integration of the acceleration grid power supplies for SPIDER and the diagnostic neutral beam. To fulfil its commitment, ITER India concluded a Memorandum of Understanding with a leading manufacturer in India—the Electronics Corporation of India Ltd (ECIL). Under this arrangement, ITER India has placed contracts for design, manufacture, supply and testing. Late August, experts from India’s Institute of Plasma Research, the manufacturer ECIL, industry and ITER India participated in the final design review, with the remote participation of experts from the ITER Organization, the European Domestic Agency, t Czytaj dalej...

"We" must supersede "I"

Competitive cyclists develop stamina, discipline and determination—all strengths that will assist ITER Chief Engineer Joo-Shik Bak as he takes on new and additional responsibilities as head of the Project Control & Assembly Directorate. „ITER is changing phases,” said the newly named Director, „and we need to change too. After years of focusing on completing the design, we are now transitioning to manufacturing and very soon to assembly and installation. The work we do now to prepare for assembly is of extreme importance.” The Project Control & Assembly Directorate was created by the ITER Director-General earlier this year to direct resources to preparing for this critical phase of ITER construction, for which the ITER Organization has full responsibility. „We are determining now how to treat assembly in the most efficient manner. As a first-of-a-kind project it’s not easy to capture industry experience. We need to think now about how best to select the most capable contractors for assembly works.” Joo-Shik, who has been acting director for the Directorate since March, already has the experience of building four large-scale projects in Korea. „Based on my previous experience, I know that our success in this endeavour will be based on two principles: working together and keeping our promises.” „Together,” he explains, „we can achieve what no one person could achieve alone. In a project, the ‚we’ must supersede the ‚I’—that is to say that the team is more important than any one person, including myself.” And for him, the notion of „promise” is best expressed by the Chinese character for the word, which is made up of two faces—confidence and binding. „It means that we make promises that we can kee Czytaj dalej...

Another step towards powering the ITER facility

Colleagues from US ITER, ITER Korea, and the ITER Organization gathered in Ulsan, South Korea on September 25-27 at the premises of Hyundai Heavy Industries to participate in the Manufacturing Readiness Review for the ITER Steady State Electrical Network (SSEN) High Voltage Substation Transformers. This successful review is a crucial step towards powering the ITER facility. The four transformer units, each rated 400/23.1kV, 75MVA, serve to connect the ITER site’s 400kV Prionnet substation, operated by the French operator RTE, to the ITER SSEN AC distribution system. The SSEN, together with the PPEN (Pulsed Power Electrical Network), provides all electrical power to the ITER facility. The SSEN provides power to all of the conventional „steady” loads of ITER, including the cooling water systems, the cryoplant, and all other loads demanded by the site infrastructure up to and including the HVAC and lighting of the buildings. The PPEN provides power to the „pulsed” systems of ITER, including the magnet power supplies and plasma heating systems. Considering the critical role of SSEN, the quality and reliability of the transformer units is key to the high availability of ITER operations. The four units will be delivered one at a time, with the first arriving at ITER in the fall of 2014 and the last in early spring of 2015. The relatively early delivery needs of the SSEN 400kV substation components, including the transformers, is based on the need for power delivery from the SSEN substation beginning in the fall of 2015 to provide for the gradually increasing level of power required at the site during the ITER system commissioning phase. Following the review resolution process, Hyundai Heavy Industries will submit a revised documentation package that will reviewed and approved by US Czytaj dalej...

Measuring up: the challenges of blanket alignment

There are carefully laid plans, and then there’s reality. In the world of CATIA design models, the alignment of the ITER in-vessel components such as the blanket will proceed smoothly, without variances or deviation to trouble the horizon. Onto the nine welded sectors of the vacuum vessel, 440 blanket modules will be attached just so, respectful of tolerances of approximately 10 mm globally and nominal gap requirements between adjacent modules (both vertically and horizontally) of +/- 4 mm. But engineers know that variances from design parameters will occur during manufacturing and construction. Weld shrinkage during vacuum vessel assembly will introduce variation, for example, and as a result the as-built picture of the vacuum vessel will differ from nominal models … with repercussions for all the assembly tasks that follow. ITER’s in-vessel components have thus been designed to be adjustable. Manufactured in plants around the world and shipped to ITER, several thousand components will be customized during assembly to achieve the demanding tolerances allocated to in-vessel systems. For the blanket, composed of massive steel shield blocks that carry the plasma-facing first wall panels, alignment will be achieved by customizing approximately 4,000 interfacing components. Central to identifying the variances—and defining customization requirements—are sophisticated optical metrology techniques. „To have first-wall panels aligned within a relative step tolerance of 5mm, the shield blocks must first be precisely installed,” says David Wilson, responsible officer for alignment and metrology for ITER. Each of the 440 blanket shield blocks will be bolted in four positions to the vacuum vessel wall. „Our challenge will be to machine the shield block’s customizable componen Czytaj dalej...

More factory than mere "workshop"

„Nine months, precisely,” says Cryostat Section Leader Bharat Doshi with a large smile. „The Cryostat Workshop was conceived in May and we are expecting  delivery in February…” As the 22-23 September Manufacturing Readiness Review demonstrated, the „baby” is in very good health, growing fast and strong. Joint efforts by the Indian Domestic Agency and contractors Larsen & Toubro, Spie Batignolles TPCI, Currie & Brown  were visibly appreciated by the review panel made up of representatives from the ITER Organization and ITER-India, who acknowledged that the building’s construction design fulfilled requirements. About half of the steel columns are already in place; in the coming weeks they will double in height to attain 27 meters, adding a new and distinctive feature to the ITER platform. „The Cryostat Workshop—110 metres long, 44 metres wide and 27 meters tall—will be comparable to an Airbus hangar,” says Bharat. „It will be a large steel structure with slightly positive pressure inside, equipped with a huge, motorized, airtight door (15 x 33 m) for the passage of the preassembled cryostat sections.” The steel structure will be rather light, but sturdy for a building this size. Approximately 500 tons of steel will go into the trusses, beams and columns. „The strength of the local winds (for example, the Mistral) as well as heavy loads have been taken into consideration,” adds Bharat. A large 200-ton goliath crane (also called a gantry crane) capable of travelling the whole length of the building will be solidly anchored into the floor. The crane, whose components will come from Italy, will be installed after the closing of the roof. When it’s up in all its length and breadth in February, Czytaj dalej...