Cryostat

Who’s got the biggest?

At ITER, we don’t brag. But we do like to mention the exceptional dimensions of the machine we are building: the ITER Tokamak will indeed include components that, in their category, are by far the largest in the world. In talks and presentations to the public it has become routine, for instance, to assert that the ITER cryostat will be the largest high-vacuum chamber ever built. But recently, a young postdoc attending a presentation on ITER at the Institute of Plasma Physics in Prague took issue with this claim. It’s NASA’s Space Power Facility, the student said, that holds the blue ribbon for the largest high-vacuum chamber. Located in Sandusky, Ohio (USA), the Space Power Facility was built in 1969 to create an environment comparable to that encountered in deep space, on the Moon or on planet Mars. It comes complete with high-vacuum, extreme cold (down to minus 195°C) and solar radiation simulation. NASA has been using the facility for more than four decades to expose rocket components, space capsules, landing vehicles and satellite hardware to the harsh conditions of outer space. Its futuristic setting has also inspired movie makers: in 2012 the opening sequences of the blockbuster The Avengers were filmed there. The cylindrical vacuum chamber is 30 metres in diameter and 37 metres in height—bigger, it’s true, than the 29.4 x 29 metre ITER cryostat. There is however an important difference between the two: while the aluminium Space Power Facility’s test chamber is spectacularly empty (after all, rocket stages have to fit in) the steel ITER cryostat is a very crowded place. In ITER, because of the volume occupied by components such as magnets, support structures, the thermal shield and the vacuum vessel itself, the pump volume inside the cryostat—that is, the total volu Czytaj dalej...

Korean contract advances neutral beam ports

The Korean Domestic Agency signed an important contract in July for the fabrication of neutral beam port in-wall shielding with Korean supplier Hyundai Heavy Industries Co., LTD (HHI). Through this contract, installation of the in-wall shielding into the port stub extensions will begin in mid-2015 with fabrication completed by early 2016. Hyundai Heavy Industries is also manufacturing two sectors of ITER vacuum vessel as contractor to the Korean Domestic Agency, as well as seventeen equatorial ports and the nine lower ports The vacuum vessel’s neutral beam ports are composed of a connecting duct, port extension, and port stub extension. The spaces between the inner and outer shells of the port extension and port stub extension are filled with preassembled blocks called in-wall shielding. The main purpose of in-wall shielding is to provide neutron shielding for the superconducting magnets, the thermal shield and the cryostat. In order to provide effective neutron shielding capability with the cooling water, 40-millimetre-thick flat plates (steel type 304B4) are used in almost all areas of the volume between port shells. In-wall shielding is composed of shield plates, upper/lower brackets and bolt/nut/washers. Pre-assembled 368 in-wall shielding blocks will be assembled into the neutral beam port extension and port stub extension during port fabrication, while 160 field joint in-wall shielding blocks will be assembled after field joint welding on the ITER site. The total net weight of all neutral beam in-wall shielding approximates 100 tons. Ki-jung Jung, Director-General of the Korean Domestic Agency, commented during the signature: „ITER Korea takes very seriously the demands of the vacuum vessel schedule and quality requirements by ITER.” Czytaj dalej...

A traditional Indian blessing for the Cryostat Workshop

In the Indian pantheon, Ganesha is the one who can remove the hurdles from the path of our human endeavours. In India, anything of importance—a wedding, journey or construction project—begins with an invocation to the elephant-headed deity. Since a small portion of the ITER platform has been made available to the Indian Domestic Agency for the construction of the Cryostat Workshop, it was natural to place this football-field-sized piece of India under the protection of the „Remover of Obstacles.” Throwing a bridge between the high-technology world of ITER and the Indian tradition of times immemorial, Bharat Doshi, Cryostat Section leader, first explained to his guests during a ceremony held on 6 June how the giant ITER cryostat will be assembled from 54 segments manufactured in India. He then proceeded to „break the coconut” and share the coconut meat among the guests—a ritual that is also meant to appease Mother Earth, whose tranquillity will soon be disturbed by the construction works. Once every guest had broken a coconut, a large excavator symbolically scratched the earth where the 26-metre-high, 110-metre-long Cryostat Workshop will soon be erected. The same Indian company (Larsen & Toubro Ltd) that will manufacture the cryostat will also build the Workshop and manage the assembly and welding activities all the way through to the final integration of the cryostat into the machine. „We have already launched the procurement process for the raw material,” explained Philippe Tollini, Larsen & Toubro’s director for Europe and Russia. „We are presently in the manufacturing design stage, which will be completed by September. We should begin to receive the first cryostat segments from India at the end of 2014, beginnin Czytaj dalej...

Progress on magnet supports in China

The Chinese Domestic Agency is building the full set of magnet supports for ITER, representing more than 350 tons of equipment. The magnet supports will support the overall tokamak gravity load of 10,000 tons as well as withstand the unprecedented large electromagnetic loads experienced by the magnets. The gravity support system, attached to the base of the cryostat with 18-fold symmetry (see image), needs to accommodate local thermal shrinkage during operation of -32 mm for the toroidal field coil structure cooled to 4K while remaining rigid against all out-of-plane bending. In May, representatives of the ITER Organization and the Chinese Domestic Agency were present to witness a step forward in the preparation of a gravity support mockup test frame, which is part of the qualification phase of the Magnet Supports Procurement Arrangement. The mockup aims to verify the reliability of design and simulate some sub-scale operation loads on the ITER gravity supports. To this aim, a true-size gravity support mockup and a multi-dimensional loading test frame system was designed by the Southwestern Institute of Physics (SWIP). At the beginning of 2012, the loading frame system was fabricated by the Changchun Research Institute for Mechanical Science Co, Ltd. and pre-accepted by both the Chinese Domestic Agency and SWIP. It was delivered to SWIP in February for assembly. In May 2103, the first set of Alloy 718 fasteners were released for the final gravity support mockup test installation; these had been manufactured by Guizhou Aerospace Xinli Casting & Forging Co., Ltd. Wuhan Heavy Machinery, the main machining and welding supplier of the Chinese Domestic Agency, is currently producing prototypes of poloidal coil supports in order to optimize and qualify final manufacturing processes in the prospect of b Czytaj dalej...

In Korea, a week of meetings for key ITER components

An important week of meetings took place recently in Korea for the ITER vacuum vessel and thermal shield—for both of these key components industrial suppliers have been selected and manufacturing, pre-manufacturing or kick-off works have begun. The 52nd ITER Vacuum Vessel Integrated Product Team (IPT) meeting and Domestic Agency collaboration meeting held on 8-10 April brought together over 30 experts from the ITER Organization, the European, Indian, Korean and Russian Domestic Agencies, and Korean industry (Hyundai Heavy Industry & AMW). During meetings hosted at the National Fusion Research Institute (NFRI) and at Hyundai Heavy Industry, participants shared the technology and experience of fabrication of the ITER vacuum vessel, ports and in-wall shielding, and discussed the development pathway for fabrication issues. A visit was organized to the KSTAR Tokamak at NFRI. During a bilateral collaboration meeting held on 11 April, participants from the Korean and European Domestic Agencies—plus industrial suppliers Hyundai Heavy Industry and AMW—focused more particularly on the new technologies for fabrication of ITER vacuum vessel sectors, especially welding, nondestructive examination (NDE) and optical dimensional measurement. All parties agreed that such valuable collaboration would be continued in the future. On Friday 12 April, the kick-off meeting for the ITER thermal shield was held—this key component will be installed between the magnets and the vacuum vessel/cryostat in order to shield the magnets from radiation. The contract for the design and fabrication of the thermal shield was awarded by the Korean Domestic Agency in February to SFA Engineering Corp, which is also the supplier selected by Korea for ITER’s assembly tooling. SFA presented the implementation plan for the procurement of Czytaj dalej...

A "Little India" on the ITER worksite

Beginning in December 2015, the first of the ITER cryostat’s components will arrive on site. A part of India’s in-kind contribution to the project, these 54 segments are among the largest and heaviest of the whole Tokamak assembly. They will have to be  preassembled into four sections before being transported to the Assembly Building. The pre-assembly operations will take place in a dedicated temporary workshop located on the northeast corner of the ITER worksite, slightly set back from the PF Coil Winding Facility. The workshop will be built and operated by the Indian Domestic Agency. As stipulated in the agreement that the ITER Organization and the Indian Domestic Agency signed last Friday 19 April, this small „territory”, the size of a football field (50 x 120 m), will be made available to  the Indian Domestic Agency. Acting as building owner on this portion of the ITER worksite, the Indian Domestic-Agency will observe French labour laws and regulations. Over the past two years and in addition to the preparation of the agreement, the ITER Building Site and Infrastructure Directorate, supported by Legal Affairs, prepared the administrative files pertaining to the environmental authorisations and building permit necessary for the construction and operation of the temporary workshop. Work on the steel-framed workshop should begin in the coming weeks and last for 18 months. Once the building is completed, Larsen and Toubro Ltd, the Indian company that was awarded the contract for the fabrication and assembly of the ITER Cryostat in August 2012, will have some 50 people on site, and many more, locally subcontracted, once the actual assembly work begins. Czytaj dalej...

The Sun never sets on the CODAC empire

Every year in February, when almond trees begin to bloom in Provence, the ITER CODAC team releases a new version of the CODAC Core System. The 2013 edition (CODAC Core System v 4.0) is more robust, comes with a better operator interface, offers more features, and supports plant systems that need „fast control,” for example plasma control systems that have to react within a strictly defined period of time. „Version 3.0 did it okay,” says ITER Control System Division Head Anders Wallander. „Version 4.0 does it better.” CODAC (Control, Data Access and Communication) can be described as a software conductor that orchestrates the dialogue between the hundred-odd ITER plant systems …”the system of systems that makes one entity of everything” … the lingua franca that allows the magnets, blanket, tritium plant, cryostat and diagnostics to exchange signals and share information. Working for the ITER project here and abroad, 55 organizations (Domestic Agencies, fusion labs, contractors) are presently using the CODAC Core System. An infrastructure has been set up to distribute the software to these and future organizations and to keep track of versions used. Training and user support is also provided. The software package has recently demonstrated its efficiency on the Korean tokamak KSTAR and celebrated its „First Plasma,” so to speak, last June at the Frascati Tokamak Upgrade (FTU) project in Italy.  „The ITER CODAC system is truly becoming a world language,” says Anders. CODAC is already implemented and deployed to monitor the power consumption on the ITER site, providing the „power people” with a global view and data with which to charge the different contractors operating on site. „With these pilot applicatio Czytaj dalej...

Korea awards contract for ITER thermal shields

The Korean Domestic Agency signed a contract with SFA Engineering Corp. for ITER thermal shields on 28 February. The contract covers the detailed design of manifolds/instrumentation, the manufacturing design and the fabrication of the thermal shield system. „For us, this is a big step forward for the Korean contribution to ITER,” said Myeun Kwon, president of the National Fusion Research Institute, after the signing. SFA is a leading company in industrial automation with much experience in the procurement of advanced equipment related to fusion, accelerator, and space technology. SFA was deeply involved in the manufacturing and assembly of the Korean tokamak KSTAR. The ITER thermal shield will be installed between the magnets and the vacuum vessel/cryostat in order to shield the magnets from radiation. The thermal shield consists of stainless steel panels with a low emissivity surface (<0.05) that are actively cooled by helium gas, which flows inside the cooling tube welded on the panel surface. The temperature of helium gas is between 80 K and 100 K during plasma operation. The total surface area of the thermal shield is approximately 4000 m2 and its assembled body (25 m tall) weighs about 900 tons. The key challenges for thermal shield manufacturing are tight tolerances, precision welding, and the silver coating of the large structure. The thermal shield also has many interfaces with other tokamak components. „The Korean Domestic Agency is satisfied with this contract because the thermal shield is one of the most critical procurement items in the ITER project. We will do our best in collaboration with the ITER Organization to successfully procure the ITER thermal shield,” said Hyeon Gon Lee, DDG of the Korean Domestic Agency, on the occasion of the contract signature. Czytaj dalej...

EUR 83 million contract signed for Liquid Helium Plant

The ITER Tokamak will rely on the largest cryogenic plant (cryoplant) infrastructure ever built. Three liquid helium plants, working in parallel, will provide a total average cooling capacity of 75 kW at 4.5 K and a maximum cumulated liquefaction rate of 12,300 litres/hour. On Tuesday, 11 December, ITER Director-General Osamu Motojima and the Managing Director of Air Liquide Advanced Technologies, Xavier Vigor, signed the contract for ITER’s three identical liquid helium (LHe) plants. The contract comprises the design, manufacturing, installation and commissioning of the LHe plants, which are adapted to the long-term, uninterrupted operation of the ITER Tokamak. The contract is worth EUR 83 million. The cryoplant and cryo-distribution system will supply cooling for the ITER superconducting magnets to confine and stabilize the plasma. They will also provide the refrigeration for the cryosorption panels that are necessary to evacuate the helium ashes stemming from the fusion reaction and to assure the required vacuum for the cryostat and the vacuum vessel. All these users require helium cryogen at different temperature levels ranging from 4.5 K, to 50 K and up to 80 K. The key design requirement is to cope with ITER’s large dynamic heat loads ranging from 40 to 110 kW at 4.5 K mainly deposited in the magnets due to magnetic field variation and neutron production from deuterium-tritium fusion reactions. At the same time, the system must be able to cope with the regular regeneration of the cryopumps. Manufacturing of the LHe plant main components will start after design finalization in 2014. The first compressor station will be delivered at the end of 2015 and the LHe plants will be ready for the cool-down of sub-systems in 2018. „This is a major milestone not only for the cryogenic syste Czytaj dalej...

"Low-voltage" review opens way to contracts

Coil instrumentation in ITER consists of some 3,000 sensors whose function is to monitor the essential parameters of magnets during ITER operation. A EUR 25 million package, coil instrumentation forms one the few direct purchases of the ITER Organization and the only fund procurement of the Magnet Division. The components will be delivered by the ITER Organization to the Domestic Agencies involved in coil procurement. Cryogenic and mechanical instrumentation components („low-voltage” components) account for about one-third of the package’s value. Measuring temperature, displacement, strain, and deformation, the low-voltage sensors are critical. The Head of the Magnet Division, Neil Mitchell, explains: „These components cannot be maintained once they are installed. If one fails, it is lost. Of course there are redundancies, but we have to do our best to guarantee they will operate for 30 years in the harsh cryostat environment.” On 13-14 December, all of the low-voltage components were reviewed by a panel that included members of the different ITER departments and directorates, specialists from the Domestic Agencies, and also internationally reputed external experts. This was the third Manufacturing Readiness Review organized by the ITER Magnets Division over the last two months. The first one was conducted on the safety class quench detection system on 23 October; the second on 29-30 November for investment protection quench detection and related high voltage components. Last week’s low-voltage review panel was chaired by Michel Huguet, a major figure in the history of the ITER project who joined fusion research in 1969 at CEA, spent 19 years at JET, and eventually headed the ITER Joint Work Site at Naka (Japan). „The panel members were quite satisfied—I could ev Czytaj dalej...

Crowning the cryostat from below

Columns are as old as civilization: for thousands of years, they have provided architects and engineers with a simple and sturdy solution to support heavy loads while leaving room to move around on the ground below. This traditional and reliable solution was to be implemented in ITER: a circular arrangement of 18 steel columns was to support the cryostat ring—the thick steel component that acts as a mechanical interface between the combined mass of the cryostat and Tokamak (25,000 tons) and the Tokamak Complex basemat. Columns do a great job supporting large, static loads. However under particular circumstances during ITER Tokamak operation, mechanical, magnetic, or thermal loads, singly or combined, could add up to generate considerable stress on the columns. In the case of a vertical displacement event, for instance, the Tokamak could „up-lift”; in the case of a cryostat ingress cooling event, the cryostat could „shrink”… Once refined, models and simulations showed that under certain conditions the load transfer to the basemat by way of the columns was not totally satisfying. For ITER Safety Security and Quality (SQS), this was clearly a potential safety issue. „As the Tokamak Complex basemat could not be modified, it was imperative to develop an alternate solution to the columns. In this, the expertise of Design Integration Section was fundamental,” explains head of the ITER Licensing Cell Joëlle Elbez-Uzan. Thus began, early in 2012, a ten-month collaborative effort involving ITER’s Safety, Quality & Security; Building and Site Infrastructure; Technical Integration; Cryostat; Assembly; Safety; and Magnet teams, as well as the European Domestic Agency F4E and their Architect Engineer, Engage. „The light eventually came from  Engage’ Czytaj dalej...

ITER is well underway

The Eleventh ITER Council convened last week at the ITER site for a two-day meeting that brought together the high-level representatives of the seven ITER Members. As approximately 100 people took their places in the solemn setting of the new Council Room, Director-General Osamu Motojima welcomed the participants, adding, „I would like to take this opportunity to thank the Members, in particular Europe, the Host Party, and Agence ITER France for providing the project with the ITER Organization Headquarters building where staff is nearly fully installed.”  The Council noted the strong measures that have been taken by the ITER Organization and the Domestic Agencies to realize strategic schedule milestones and to develop new corrective measures for critical systems such as buildings, the vacuum vessel, the cryostat, and the superconducting magnets. Delegates urged further corrective actions to improve schedule execution and to seek additional savings. Delegates welcomed the integrated project management approach proposed by the ITER Organization to enhance collaboration between the ITER Organization and the Domestic Agencies, an approach, according to Director-General Motojima, to „cooperate even more closely for the implementation of ITER.” The ITER Council also celebrated the recent major licensing milestone for ITER, the strong pace of construction activities at the ITER site, and the manufacturing activities well underway in all ITER Members. The next ITER Council meeting is scheduled to take place in Japan in June 2013. Click here to view the photo gallery of the Eleventh ITER Council   Read the Press Releases in English and in French. Czytaj dalej...

"ITER is well underway"

The Eleventh ITER Council convened last week at the ITER site for a two-day meeting that brought together the high-level representatives of the seven ITER Members. As approximately 100 people took their places in the solemn setting of the new Council Room, Director-General Osamu Motojima welcomed the participants, adding, „I would like to take this opportunity to thank the Members, in particular Europe, the Host Party, and Agence ITER France for providing the project with the ITER Organization Headquarters building where staff is nearly fully installed.”  The Council noted the strong measures that have been taken by the ITER Organization and the Domestic Agencies to realize strategic schedule milestones and to develop new corrective measures for critical systems such as buildings, the vacuum vessel, the cryostat, and the superconducting magnets. Delegates urged further corrective actions to improve schedule execution and to seek additional savings. Delegates welcomed the integrated project management approach proposed by the ITER Organization to enhance collaboration between the ITER Organization and the Domestic Agencies, an approach, according to Director-General Motojima, to „cooperate even more closely for the implementation of ITER.” The ITER Council also celebrated the recent major licensing milestone for ITER, the strong pace of construction activities at the ITER site, and the manufacturing activities well underway in all ITER Members. The next ITER Council meeting is scheduled to take place in Japan in June 2013. Click here to view the photo gallery of the Eleventh ITER Council   Read the Press Releases in English and in French. Czytaj dalej...

Corrective actions in place to accelerate construction

Last Wednesday, ITER Director-General Osamu Motojima called for an all-hands meeting in the Headquarters’ brand-new amphitheatre in order to brief the ITER Organization staff on the outcome of the recent meetings of the projects scientific and managerial advisory committees. To this memorable event, Director-General Motojima had invited both the present and former chairmen of the Management Advisory Committee, Ranjay Sharan and Bob Iotti. At the outset, the Director-General presented the conclusions of the 14th meeting of the project’s Management Advisory Committee (MAC) that had taken place on 29-31 October. The MAC had acknowledged the intensive work done by the ITER Organization in collaboration with the seven Domestic Agencies since the special MAC meeting held in August. Required schedule recovery actions have been taken and the collaboration between the ITER Organization and the Domestic Agencies has been intensified through the establishment of the Unique ITER Team. „However, the MAC recognized that further and intensive efforts are necessary,” MAC Chair Ranjay Sharan explained. „The variances will have to be minimized by parallel working approaches and innovative methods. The MAC will closely monitor these approaches.” „Yes, there are issues,” Iotti admitted, „but we are working closely together to resolve them.” Of great concern: the delays related to six super-critical items—the buildings, the vacuum vessel, the poloidal field coils, the toroidal field coils, the central solenoid conductor and the cryostat. Two other essential issues were the focus of this 14th MAC meeting: the rules for further distribution of credits amongst the ITER Members as proposed in the „MAC-10 Guidelines,” and the proposal for a simplified assembly pla Czytaj dalej...

Corrective actions are now in place to accelerate ITER construction

Last Wednesday, ITER Director-General Osamu Motojima called for an all-hands meeting in the Headquarters’ brand-new amphitheatre in order to brief the ITER Organization staff on the outcome of the recent meetings of the projects scientific and managerial advisory committees. To this memorable event, Director-General Motojima had invited both the present and former chairmen of the Management Advisory Committee, Ranjay Sharan and Bob Iotti. At the outset, the Director-General presented the conclusions of the 14th meeting of the project’s Management Advisory Committee (MAC) that had taken place on 29-31 October. The MAC had acknowledged the intensive work done by the ITER Organization in collaboration with the seven Domestic Agencies since the special MAC meeting held in August. Required schedule recovery actions have been taken and the collaboration between the ITER Organization and the Domestic Agencies has been intensified through the establishment of the Unique ITER Team. „However, the MAC recognized that further and intensive efforts are necessary,” MAC Chair Ranjay Sharan explained. „The variances will have to be minimized by parallel working approaches and innovative methods. The MAC will closely monitor these approaches.” „Yes, there are issues,” Iotti admitted, „but we are working closely together to resolve them.” Of great concern: the delays related to six super-critical items—the buildings, the vacuum vessel, the poloidal field coils, the toroidal field coils, the central solenoid conductor and the cryostat. Two other essential issues were the focus of this 14th MAC meeting: the rules for further distribution of credits amongst the ITER Members as proposed in the „MAC-10 Guidelines,” and the proposal for a simplified assembly pla Czytaj dalej...

Measuring current with light

At the Belgian Nuclear Research Center SCK•CEN in Mol, engineers and scientists are developing a system that should enable ITER to measure plasma current in a new fashion. In contrast to the present-day inductive system, the measuring principle developed by the Belgian researchers is ideal for very long shots or even steady state current measurements without the need of signal integration with time. The measurement is based on a fully optical principle: polarized light is launched in an optical fibre. Following Faraday’s law, the light polarization plane is rotated if a magnetic field is applied along the light path. By surrounding the vacuum chamber with a fibre loop, the current of the plasma is completely enclosed. It follows from the Ampere law that the total rotation angle is directly proportional to the enclosed current. Up until now such systems were only applied for much lower currents and in environments less harsh than that of the ITER Tokamak where radiation, temperature, vacuum, vibrations etc., make existing designs unusable. The SCK•CEN, with a long experience in radiation-resistant fibre optics, is pursuing a sensor design based on fibres with limited sensitivity to radiation. As, due to the environment, it can’t be ruled out that the optical fibre may be compromised (i.e., a darkening of the fibre due to irradiation), the sensing fibre could be replaced by a simple intervention from outside of the cryostat: the fibre, installed in a stainless steel tube, could be replaced using a pressurized-air fibre blowing technique. If so, ITER would have the benefit of a measurement system that is easily replaceable.  In practice, however, designing a suitable fibre blowing system in compliance with ITER geometry is a serious engineering challenge. To test the design on a real scale Czytaj dalej...

Larsen & Toubro Ltd will manufacture ITER Cryostat

The ITER cryostat will be the world’s largest high-vacuum pressure chamber ever built. On 17 August, the contract for the manufacturing of the 3,800 ton steel-structure was signed with the Indian company Larsen & Toubro (L&T) Ltd. The cryostat forms the vacuum-tight container surrounding the ITER vacuum vessel and the superconducting magnets – essentially acting as a very large refrigerator. It will be made of stainless steel with thicknesses ranging from 50 mm to 250 mm. The structure will have to withstand a vacuum pressure of 1 x 10 -4 Pa; the pump volume is designed for 8,500 m3. Its overall dimensions will be 29.4 meters in diameter and 29 meters in height. The heavy-weight will bring more than 3,800 tons onto the scale – making it the largest vacuum vessel ever built out of stainless steel. The cryostat will have 23 penetrations allowing internal access for maintenance, as well as over 200 penetrations—some as large as four metres in size – providing access to the vacuum vessel for cooling systems, magnet feeders, auxiliary heating, diagnostics, and the removal of blanket and parts of the divertor. Large bellows are used between the cryostat and the vacuum vessel to allow for thermal contraction and expansion in the structures. India, being one of the seven Members of the ITER project, is in charge of procuring the cryostat. On 17 August, Shishir Deshpande, Project Director ofITER-India and Anil Parab, Vice President of the L&T Heavy Engineering division, signed the contract for manufacturing of the ITER cryostat. The design of the ITER cryostat represented a huge international endeavour involving engineers and technicians from both the ITER Organization and the Indian Domestic Agency. „The cryostat is an essential part of the ITER machine. Seeing this huge Czytaj dalej...